9,000 BC to about 5,500 BC
Clovis, Folsom, Great Basin Stemmed, Foothill-Mountain and various late Paleoindian styles.
Big and small game hunters, collectors, foragers.
About 5,500 BC to about 1000 BC
Foragers and collectors, Increased use of plants; diversity of site and tool types; desert and marsh adaptations; use of pit houses; use of caves like Danger Cave, Cowboy Cave, Hogup Cave, grinding stones and seed processing.
Small family bands of hunters and gathers, very complex social and religious organization. Well adapted to live in harsh environment.
Gate Cliff Series Projectile Points, Elko Series Projectile Points, Pinto, Northern Side Notched Points.
Formative Late Prehistoric: Anasazi, Fremont
About 1000 BC to about 1300 AD
Pit house Villages, Cliff Dwellings, Elaborate Architecture variety of ceramic styles, Farming: corn, beans, and squash.
Proto-Historic and Historic Tribes
About 1300 AD to Present
Food: Gathered plants and seeds, fished. Hunted deer, buffalo and antelope
Shelter: Teepee made from buffalo hides and tall poles; could carry like a tent
Clothing: Wore long dresses, skirts, trousers, and moccasins made from buffalo hides.
Way of Life: Groups of 200 divided into smaller family groups. Women made clothes from animal skins. Men spent most of their time hunting.
Food: Gathered seeds, plants, and roots. Farmed corn, squash, beans, sunflowers, wheat, and melons. Fished, hunted small animals.
Shelter: Wicki-up in the winter and nothing in the summer.
Clothing: Wore little clothing.
Way of Life: Family groups of 15-30 Woven baskets used for storage, carrying water, hats, trays, and bowls.
Food: Dug for roots, gathered berries, seeds from grasses and pine trees. Used a bunch of different plants. Caught birds, crickets, mice, rabbits, insects, and lizards.
Shelter: Wicki-ups in the summer, caves and rock shelters in the winter.
Clothing: Wore little clothing and had rabbit-skin blankets.
Way of Life: Small family groups. Spent most of their time gathering food.
Food: Gathered roots, seeds, and pinyon nuts. Fished, hunted small animals. Raised corn, squash, and beans.
Shelter: Pit houses, Wicki-ups
Clothing: Animal skins for clothes and blankets.
Way of Life: Small family bands. Made baskets and some pottery.
Food: Planted corn, beans, and squash. Hunted rabbits, prairie dogs, deer, and antelope.
Clothing: Animal skins and wool.
Way of Life: Close family group organized around the mother or grandmother. Weaved, farmed, silversmithed, and raised sheep and goats.
1853 The Walker War with the Ute Indians begins over slavery among the Indians.
1865-1868 Ute Black Hawk War last major Indian conflict in Utah.