Utah History to Go
Mexican Families and the Sugar Industry in Garland
From War to war


World War I and Utah
Utah's Capitols
Herbert S. Auerbach, Renaissance Man
Utah's "Ugly Duckling" Salt Flats
Publicizing Bryce Canyon
The Last Indian Uprising
Home Industry 20th Century Style
Some 80 Utah Nurses Served in World War I
World War I Heroine Maud Fitch Lived in Eureka, Utah
Mexican Families and the Sugar Industry in Garland
The Development of Zion National Park
The Twenties
Artist John Held, Jr. Created Cultural Icons, 1920's
Media Development in Weber County
Silent Films Intrigued & Occasionally Offended
Coal Production Amid the Wars
Sheep Fueled 1920's Economy
Military Installations
Boxcars and Section Houses
Jack Dempsey Loved Fighting, Mining, and Cowboying
Radio in Utah Began in May 1922 on Station KZN
The Cigarette Ban of the 19020's Caused an Uproar
Prohibition Failed to Stop the Liquor Flow in Utah
Lawyer Ran For President on the Farmer-Labor Ticket
George Sutherland Served on the U.S. Supreme Court
Alice Stratton Feared and Made Fun of "Kaiser Bill"
Klansmen at a Funeral and a Terrible Lynching
President Harding's 1923 Visit to Utah
Growing Crops For the Cannery
Dinosaur National Monument
The Fathers of Capitol Reef National Park
Ogden's the Bigelow-Preserves a Historic Area
Philo T. Farnsworth's Invention
The Beginnings of Commerical Aviation
The White Book Road Guide
The Great Depression
Depression Memories
"Even Grasshoppers Were Starving" During Drought
New Deal Agencies Built 233 Buildings in Utah
"Alphabet" Agencies in Utah County
The Civilian Conservation Corps Was a Boon to Utah
The Civilian Conservation Corps
Marriner S. Eccles Helped Design FDR's New Deal
Reed Smoot and the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 1930
Reed Smoot & America's Natural Resources, 1903-33
Children in the 1930's Hoped to Become Nurses & Pilots
Arches National Monument
A Labor Inspector During the Great Depression
Clean Clothes Blowing in the Breeze
Utah's Rosies in the War
Garfield County Airport Has Unusual Hangar
Marie Ogden Led Spiritual Group in San Juan County
Uinta Basin Group Trekked to the 1933 World's Fair
Helen Hofmann Bertagnole-"Utah's Queen of Swing"
World War II in Utah
How Trains Helped Win a War
The War Effort at Home
Topaz Relocation Center
Topaz: Japanese American Interned in UT During WWII
Japanese Agricultural Colony at Keetley
Utahn Survives the Attack at Pearl Harbor
The USS Salt Lake City Made History
Utah Naval Officer Died a Hero's Death at Pearl Harbor
Rhymes Filled Children's Autograph Books
Utah's Rosies Upshot
Women Workers and Housing Issues
World War II Claimed the Lives of Four Utah Brothers

Miriam B. Murphy
History Blazer, November 1995

Sixty families from Juarez, Mexico, came to Box Elder County in 1918 to work in the sugar beet fields. They established a colonia on the outskirts of Garland where Utah-Idaho Sugar Company had built a sugar factory in 1903. Farmers in the area had increased their sugar beet acreage over the years. That and labor shortages associated with World War I led the company to seek workers outside the United States. During the harvest season the company brought an additional 150 Mexican workers to Garland.

In 1920 Frank A. Arnold visited the Mexicans in Garland. His account of the colonia, including several photographs, was published in the Salt Lake Tribune. Today's readers may find fault with Arnold's simplistic and sometimes stereotypical view of the residents, but he clearly liked and even admired the people he met there. Regardless, he provided a rare look at the workers from Mexico who contributed so much to Utah's agricultural success.

The houses furnished by the company "look[ed] like cross sections of freight cars, and...rent[ed] for $2 a month." Each house contained "a good range" that the tenants bought with small monthly payments and a corn mill. In back of each house the family grew chilies, corn, beans, garlic, lettuce, and cilantro--"so good in soups"--and kept chickens and rabbits for fresh meat. In the fall "the front of the house...is gay with drying red peppers and beef." The houses were evidently sparsely furnished with whatever each family had been able to bring with them from Mexico or acquire locally. The women, Arnold reported, sat on the floor much of the time to do their work: "...washing dishes, mixing tortillas or grinding corn. The tortillas they roll out as thin as paper on a board and then bake on top of the stove."

Arnold arrived at the colonia just before beet thinning began, so most of the women were at home with their children. "A few days later," he noted, "and most of the women would have followed their sons and husbands into the fields to cook for them, for beet work is a season of camping for the whole family...." The reporter was rebuffed at first by the shy and modest women who did not feel comfortable talking with a strange male, especially one who wanted to photograph them. He finally convinced them of his sincerity, and several of them eagerly posed for a photograph with their children: "First came Francisco Torres with her month-old baby. Then Guancha Ramos retreated into her house, all papered with the colored advertising pages of American weeklies, and in a few minutes came forth with the most embroidered baby in Utah in her arms." All the edges of the infant's layered white silk dress were embroidered. Many women in the village were accomplished embroiderers, he discovered, most notably Se?? Salome Sermeno.

The company had paid the workers to build a schoolhouse. This they did by making adobe bricks from clay found near the Malad River flats. The county furnished a teacher, and, Arnold wrote, "the work of Americanization is evidently succeeding, for the children are reported as being uncommonly bright. In fact, they gave much pleasure to the church-going population of Garland by singing 'Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star' one Sunday night in meeting." According to Arnold, the Mexicans received a very friendly reception from Garland's townspeople, and unlike the situation in southern California, he noted, the Mexicans were welcome at local movies and restaurants and even, if the sad occasion arose, in the local cemetery. Still, Arnold related, "now and then a Garland small boy has to fight with a Mexican boy to show him that he belongs to the old aristocracy of Garland."

The Mexican worker was "malleable and dependable," Arnold wrote, spent his earnings locally for food and clothing--"a welcome addition to the trade of any town"--and when not needed in the beet fields was "willing to work on the railroad." Moreover, the women of the community made "excellent housekeepers."

When they were not hard at work, the residents of the colonia knew how to enjoy themselves on such Mexican holidays as September 16, celebrating their country's independence from Spain with feasting and music. "Many of them play the guitar well enough to go on a vaudeville circuit," Arnold averred. He said the men were planning to build a high adobe wall so they could play their favorite ball games. With a sense of irony Arnold noted that the roosters to be found in Box Elder County were "tame, spiritless birds," implying that cockfighting--an activity frowned on in America--would not be found in the back alleys of the Garland colonia.The idyllic picture Arnold painted of Mexican life in Garland focussed on the positive aspects of the residents' activities and their relationship with townspeople. The life of migrant workers and their families was arduous, a fact only hinted at by Arnold. After 1930, historian Vicente V. Mayer wrote, these early agricultural colonias disbanded. To meet the demands of Utah farmers, more and more Mexican migrant workers came to toil in fields and orchards. Se?? Francis Yanez recalled "working on the farm, from the time I was about seven....We started topping beets in the early season. You were down on your knees...hour after hour...and the sun would be beating on you, and it would rain on you. But we were hungry...our parents would tell us, 'We have to do it--to feed the younger ones.'" Migrant workers in Utah and elsewhere often faced discrimination and hostility from the local community and lived in crowded, squalid conditions in the camps provided for them. They endured, however, and many of these unsung heroes and heroines of agriculture took up permanent residence in the state as part of Utah's growing and diverse Spanish-speaking community.

See: Salt Lake Tribune, June 13, 1920; Vicente V. Mayer, "After Escalante: The Spanish-speaking People of Utah," in The Peoples of Utah, ed. Helen Z. Papanikolas (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976), and "Migrant Labor" clipping file, Utah State Historical Society Library.



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